Ep 10 – A Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope w/Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast


Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMVA Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Episode 10

In this episode, Fr. Gallagher shares more letters exchanged between Léonie and her sister, Thérèse.

In this episode, Léonie has returned home after her second failed attempt to enter into religious life at the Monastery of the Visitation at Caen.  Her father, Louie, has passed away, and her sister Céline has entered the Carmel with her three other sisters.  Her aunt and uncle have warmly welcomed her into their home, but she feels uncomfortable and out of place given the family’s outgoing social nature.  What will become of poor Léonie?

As Thérèse nears her death, she continues to write words of encouragement to Léonie.   She reassures Léonie that she will be even closer to her once she reaches heaven and will never stop praying for her.

After reading and re-reading Thérèse’s writings, Léonie is more determined than ever to return to the Visitation Sisters, where major changes have occurred within the Monastery.  The next chapter of Léonie’s story is about to begin.


Fr. Gallagher says, “Léonie’s life holds a very important story because she was the forgotten one; she was the one who was in the last place; she was the one who was less gifted than the others. Today we would call her a ‘problem child,’ and we’ll see that she certainly was the source of great anxiety to her parents, especially to her mother, Zélie, who loved her dearly.”

As a child, Léonie suffered from severe illnesses and physical maladies that would plague her entire life. She also struggled with understanding social clues and interactions and with behaving appropriately. Conventional educational models of the day failed to meet her particular needs, and she was labeled “developmentally delayed.” Yet those who knew her well described her as having a “heart of gold.”

Who was Léonie and what were her struggles? Why has her cause of canonization begun?  Father Gallagher, along with Kris McGregor,  answers these questions and explains why Léonie is “a bearer of hope” in this landmark series.

Marie

Pauline

Céline

St. Thérèse

A resource used for this series

Images in this post of the Martin/Guerin family are used with permission from the Archives of the Carmel of Lisieux website for strictly non-commercial use.  We encourage you to visit the website for more information on this remarkable family.


For more series Fr. Timothy Gallagher podcasts, visit here

Father Timothy M. Gallagher, O.M.V., was ordained in 1979 as a member of the Oblates of the Virgin Mary, a religious community dedicated to retreats and spiritual formation according to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius.  Fr. Gallagher is featured on the EWTN series “Living the Discerning Life:  The Spiritual Teachings of St. Ignatius of Loyola.” For more information on how to obtain copies of Fr. Gallaghers’s various books and audio which are available for purchase, please visit  his  website:   frtimothygallagher.org

SWR-10 – Rule 5 and an introduction to Rule 6 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 10 – Rule 5 and introduction to Rule 6 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher completes his teachings on Rule 5 and moves to understanding Rule 6.  Once we have learned from the course of things, the beginning, middle, and the end, and perceive the work of the enemy, now it is time to learn from the “little by little” how the enemy works to tempt us with the “good.”

Fifth Rule.

The fifth: We should give much attention to the course of the thoughts; and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good angel; but if in the course of the thoughts that he brings, it ends in something bad, or distractive, or less good than the soul had proposed to do before, or if it weakens it, or disquiets, or troubles the soul, taking away the peace, tranquility and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the bad spirit, the enemy of our profit and eternal salvation.(333)

 

Sixth Rule.

The sixth: When the enemy of human nature has been perceived and known by his serpent’s tail and the bad end to which he induces, it profits the person who was tempted by him, to look immediately at the course of the good thoughts that he brought, and the beginning of them, and how little by little he procured to make him descend from the sweetness and spiritual gladness in which he was, till he brought him to his depraved intention; so that with such an experience known and noted he may guard himself in the future from his customary deceits. (334)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series, visit The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page.


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher.

You can find the book here.

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


SWR-9 – More from Rule 5 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 9 – More from Rule 5 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher breaks open more fully Rule 5 and the need to “give much attention to the course of the thoughts.”  Then he emphasizes the importance of understanding the signs of the good spirit and problematic signs given by the enemy.

Fifth Rule.

The fifth: We should give much attention to the course of the thoughts; and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good angel; but if in the course of the thoughts that he brings, it ends in something bad, or distractive, or less good than the soul had proposed to do before, or if it weakens it, or disquiets, or troubles the soul, taking away the peace, tranquility and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the bad spirit, the enemy of our profit and eternal salvation.(333)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series, visit The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page.


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher.

You can find the book here.

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


SWR-8 – Rules 4 and 5 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 8 – Rules 4 and 5 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher breaks open more fully Rules 4 and 5 and how the behavior of the enemy causes deceptions by appearing as an angel of light bringing good and holy thoughts.  Fr. Gallagher addresses the need to examine the course of thoughts…beginning, the middle, and the end.

Fourth Rule

The fourth: It is proper to the bad angel, who takes on the appearance of an angel of light, to enter with the devout soul and to go out with himself; that is, to bring good and holy thoughts, conformed to such a just soul, and afterwards, little by little, he endeavors to go out, bringing the soul to his hidden deceits and perverse intentions. (332)

Fifth Rule.

The fifth: We should give much attention to the course of the thoughts; and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good angel; but if in the course of the thoughts that he brings, it ends in something bad, or distractive, or less good than the soul had proposed to do before, or if it weakens it, or disquiets, or troubles the soul, taking away the peace, tranquility and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the bad spirit, the enemy of our profit and eternal salvation.(333)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series, visit: The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher.

You can find the book here

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


Ep 9 – A Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope w/Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast

Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMVA Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Episode 9

In this episode, Fr. Gallagher shares more letters exchanged between Léonie and her sister, Thérèse.

In this episode, Léonie has returned to the Monastery of the Visitation at Caen for a second time, hoping once again to enter fully into religious life.  Her beloved younger sister, Thérèse, who is now a Carmelite sister in Lisieux, sends spiritual words of encouragement during her time there.  Two years pass, and with great sadness, Léonie finds she must leave the Monastery. This marks her third failure to become a religious sister. Her family rally around her, but the question becomes once again, “What will become of poor Léonie?”


Fr. Gallagher says, “Léonie’s life holds a very important story because she was the forgotten one; she was the one who was in the last place; she was the one who was less gifted than the others. Today we would call her a ‘problem child,’ and we’ll see that she certainly was the source of great anxiety to her parents, especially to her mother, Zélie, who loved her dearly.”

As a child, Léonie suffered from severe illnesses and physical maladies that would plague her entire life. She also struggled with understanding social clues and interactions and with behaving appropriately. Conventional educational models of the day failed to meet her particular needs, and she was labeled “developmentally delayed.” Yet those who knew her well described her as having a “heart of gold.”

Who was Léonie and what were her struggles? Why has her cause of canonization begun?  Father Gallagher, along with Kris McGregor,  answers these questions and explains why Léonie is “a bearer of hope” in this landmark series.

Marie

Pauline

Céline

St. Thérèse

St. Louis Martin

A resource used for this series

Images in this post of the Martin/Guerin family are used with permission from the Archives of the Carmel of Lisieux website for strictly non-commercial use.  We encourage you to visit the website for more information on this remarkable family.


For more series Fr. Timothy Gallagher podcasts, visit here

Father Timothy M. Gallagher, O.M.V., was ordained in 1979 as a member of the Oblates of the Virgin Mary, a religious community dedicated to retreats and spiritual formation according to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius.  Fr. Gallagher is featured on the EWTN series “Living the Discerning Life:  The Spiritual Teachings of St. Ignatius of Loyola”. For more information on how to obtain copies of Fr. Gallaghers’s various books and audio which are available for purchase, please visit  his  website:   frtimothygallagher.org

SWR-7 – Rules 3 and 4 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast


Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 7 – Rules 3 and 4 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher breaks open more fully Rules 3 and 4 which primarily addresses the most common question in second mode discernment, “What about spiritual consolation with preceding cause?”

Third Rule

The third: with cause both the good angel and the bad can console the soul, for contrary ends: the good angel for the profit of the soul, that it may grow and rise from good to better; and the bad angel for the contrary, and later on to draw it to his damnable intention and malice. (331)

Fourth Rule

The fourth: It is proper to the bad angel, who takes on the appearance of an angel of light, to enter with the devout soul and to go out with himself; that is, to bring good and holy thoughts, conformed to such a just soul, and afterwards, little by little, he endeavors to go out, bringing the soul to his hidden deceits and perverse intentions. (332)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series visit: The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher

You can find the book here

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


SWR-6 – Introduction to Rules 3 to 8 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 6 – Introduction to Rules 3 to 8 – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher offers an introduction to Rules 3 through 8 which primarily addresses the most common question in second mode discernment, “What about spiritual consolation with preceding cause?”

Third Rule

The third: with cause both the good angel and the bad can console the soul, for contrary ends: the good angel for the profit of the soul, that it may grow and rise from good to better; and the bad angel for the contrary, and later on to draw it to his damnable intention and malice. (331)

Fourth Rule

The fourth: It is proper to the bad angel, who takes on the appearance of an angel of light, to enter with the devout soul and to go out with himself; that is, to bring good and holy thoughts, conformed to such a just soul, and afterwards, little by little, he endeavors to go out, bringing the soul to his hidden deceits and perverse intentions. (332)

Fifth Rule

The fifth: We should give much attention to the course of the thoughts; and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good angel; but if in the course of the thoughts that he brings, it ends in something bad, or distractive, or less good than the soul had proposed to do before, or if it weakens it, or disquiets, or troubles the soul, taking away the peace, tranquility and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the bad spirit, the enemy of our profit and eternal salvation. (333)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series visit: The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher

You can find the book here

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


SWR-5 – The Second Rule – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 5 – The Second Rule – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher continues to break open the Second Rule by using examples of different types of Spiritual Consolation.  He also delves into the proper understanding of “preceding cause.”

Second Rule

The second: it is of God our Lord alone to give consolation to the soul without preceding cause; because it is proper to the Creator to enter, go out, to move it interiorly, drawing it totally in love of his divine majesty. I say without cause, without any previous sentiment or knowledge of some object, through which such a consolation comes, by means of its acts of understanding and will. (330)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series visit: The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher

You can find the book here

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf


Ep 8 – A Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope w/Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast


Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMVA Sister of St. Thérèse: Servant of God, Léonie Martin – Bearer of Hope with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Episode 8

In this episode, Fr. Gallagher begins to share more fully the letters exchanged between Léonie and her sister, Thérèse.

Léonie has returned home after a failed attempt of joining the Poor Clare’s and she eventually hopes to join the Order of the Visitation, founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane Frances de Chantal.

Thérèse, 10 years younger than Léonie, proves to be a strong spiritual friend and companion for her sister.  Through this episode, we begin to get a glimpse of their tender, encouraging relationship. But as she has experienced in the past, this attempt to enter the Visitation Monastery in Caen will have its challenges and sufferings.


Fr. Gallagher says, “Léonie’s life holds a very important story because she was the forgotten one; she was the one who was in the last place; she was the one who was less gifted than the others. Today we would call her a ‘problem child,’ and we’ll see that she certainly was the source of great anxiety to her parents, especially to her mother, Zélie, who loved her dearly.”

As a child, Léonie suffered from severe illnesses and physical maladies that would plague her entire life. She also struggled with understanding social clues and interactions and with behaving appropriately. Conventional educational models of the day failed to meet her particular needs, and she was labeled “developmentally delayed.” Yet those who knew her well described her as having a “heart of gold”.

Who was Léonie and what were her struggles? Why has her cause of canonization begun?  Father Gallagher, along with Kris McGregor,  answers these questions and explains why Léonie is “a bearer of hope” in this landmark series.

Marie

Pauline

Céline

St. Thérèse

St. Louis Martin

A resource used for this series

Images in this post of the Martin/Guerin family are used with permission from the Archives of the Carmel of Lisieux website for strictly non-commercial use.  We encourage you to visit the website for more information on this remarkable family.


For more series Fr. Timothy Gallagher podcasts visit here

Father Timothy M. Gallagher, O.M.V., was ordained in 1979 as a member of the Oblates of the Virgin Mary, a religious community dedicated to retreats and spiritual formation according to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius.  Fr. Gallagher is featured on the EWTN series “Living the Discerning Life:  The Spiritual Teachings of St. Ignatius of Loyola”. For more information on how to obtain copies of Fr. Gallaghers’s various books and audio which are available for purchase, please visit  his  website:   frtimothygallagher.org

SWR-4 – The First Rule and Second Rule – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits w/ Fr. Timothy Gallagher – Discerning Hearts Podcast



Fr. Timothy Gallagher OMV

Episode 4 – The First and Second Rule – The Second Week Rules for the Discernment of Spirits: An Ignatian Guide to a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher

Fr. Gallagher begins to break open the First and Second Rule by using examples of different types of Spiritual Consolation.

First Rule

The first: it is proper to God and to his angels, in their movements, to give true joy and spiritual gladness, taking away all sadness and disturbance which the enemy induces; to whom it is proper to militate against that joy and spiritual consolation, bringing apparent reasons, subtleties and persistent fallacies. (329)

Second Rule

The second: it is of God our Lord alone to give consolation to the soul without preceding cause; because it is proper to the Creator to enter, go out, to move it interiorly, drawing it totally in love of his divine majesty. I say without cause, without any previous sentiment or knowledge of some object, through which such a consolation comes, by means of its acts of understanding and will. (330)

Through a series of compelling conference talks, Fr. Gallagher carefully breaks open St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Second Week Rules for Greater Discernment.  This set of 8 “rules” (or guidelines) helps us to discern whether a seemingly good, noble, holy idea or feeling, often understood as a “spiritual consolation,” could be a working of the enemy intending to lead us astray. He shows how all of us can learn to listen to and follow God’s gentle leading in our daily lives.

For other episodes in this series visit: The Second Week Rules for the Discernment Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher – DH Page


Spiritual Consolation
This series is based on Spiritual Consolation by Fr. Timothy Gallagher

You can find the book here

Also, here are the 2 handouts mentioned by Fr. Gallagher in Talk 2:

Guidance for a Greater Discernment of Spirits with Fr. Timothy Gallagher O.M.V.

For the  PDF document:  

Handout Number 1 – The Text of the 8 Rules of the Second Week
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/The_Text_of_the_Rules.pdf

Handout Number 2 – Examples – Discernment of Spirits – 2nd Week rules
https://www.discerninghearts.com/Gallagher/EXAMPLES-DISCERNMENT_OF_SPIRITS-SECOND_WEEK_RULES.pdf